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Fossilo fuels pros and cons

Fossil Fuels Pros and Cons

Last updated on March 31st, 2024 at 01:16 pm

Fossil fuels have been the backbone of the world’s energy supply for decades, providing reliable and affordable energy to power modern society. From powering our cars to heating our homes, there’s no denying that fossil fuels have had a significant impact on our world.


On one hand, fossil fuels have allowed us to make incredible advancements in technology, medicine, and transportation. But on the other hand, they also have some major downsides – from environmental damage to geopolitical conflicts. So, is the use of fossil fuels worth it?


Whether you’re a supporter or a critic of fossil fuels, after reading this article you will have a complete and detailed overview of the pros and cons of fossil fuels.


What are fossil fuels?

Fossil fuels are basically ancient plants and animals that have been buried deep underground for millions of years. They are non-renewable sources of energy.


Fossil fuels have played a crucial role in shaping our modern world. They have powered the Industrial Revolution, allowed for widespread transportation, and provided electricity to billions of people.


Do you know? The word “fossil” in fossil fuels comes from the Latin word “fossilis” which means “dug up”


What are the 3 types of fossil fuels?

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. Each of these fuels has its own unique characteristics and uses.


Coal is the most abundant and widely used fossil fuel, accounting for around 40% of global electricity generation. It is used primarily for power generation, but also for industrial processes such as steel production.


Oil is the most widely used fossil fuel, accounting for around 33% of global energy consumption. It is used primarily for transportation, heating, and industrial processes.


Natural gas is the cleanest burning of the three fossil fuels and is used primarily for heating and electricity generation. It is also used as a feedstock for the production of chemicals and other products.


Do you know? Oil was first discovered in Pennsylvania, United States in 1859 and it quickly became the world’s most important source of energy


How are Fossil Fuels Formed?

The process of fossil fuel formation begins with the accumulation of dead plant and animal matter in a low-oxygen environment, such as a swamp or ocean floor. Over time, layers of sediment and rock build up on top of the organic matter, burying it deeper and deeper underground.


As the layers of sediment and rock increase, so does the pressure and temperature on the organic matter below. This causes a process known as “diagenesis,” where the organic matter is transformed into a waxy substance called kerogen.


As the pressure and temperature continue to increase, the kerogen is further transformed into one of the three main types of fossil fuels:


  • Coal – Coal was formed from the remains of ancient forests that grew in swampy environments during the Carboniferous period, which lasted from about 360 to 300 million years ago. As these plants died and fell into the swamp, they were buried by sediment and other organic matter. Over time, heat and pressure caused the organic matter to transform into coal.


  • Oil – Oil is formed from the transformation of tiny, planktonic organisms that lived in the oceans millions of years ago. Over time, these organisms sank to the bottom of the ocean and were buried under layers of sediment and rock. The heat and pressure of this environment transformed the organic matter into liquid hydrocarbons, which we know as oil.


  • Natural Gas – Natural gas is formed in a similar way to oil, but from different types of organic matter. It is formed from the transformation of plant matter, as well as from tiny, single-celled organisms called archaea that live in the soil and sediments. As with oil, the heat and pressure of the environment cause the organic matter to transform into gaseous hydrocarbons, which we know as natural gas.

Types of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas


Fun Fact: The world’s largest oil field, the Ghawar field in Saudi Arabia, covers an area of approximately 2,50,000 acres and is estimated to hold over 70 billion barrels of oil.


Fossil fuel pros and cons


Fossil fuel pros



Fossil fuels have a proven track record of reliability, with power plants running on coal, oil, and natural gas able to produce consistent levels of electricity around the clock. This reliability makes them particularly attractive for use in industries where a steady supply of power is essential, such as manufacturing and healthcare.


While renewable energy sources like solar and wind power have the potential to provide clean energy, their reliability can be affected by weather conditions. For example, solar panels require sunlight to produce electricity, so they may not function efficiently during cloudy or rainy days. Similarly, wind turbines need a certain level of wind speed to generate electricity, and their output can be inconsistent depending on the weather patterns.


In contrast, fossil fuels are known for their reliability in supplying energy. They can provide a consistent and steady source of electricity, regardless of the weather conditions. This is because fossil fuel power plants can be turned on and off as needed to meet demand, whereas renewable energy sources rely on the availability of natural resources.


Cheap energy source

Fossil fuels have historically been a cheap source of energy, particularly when compared to renewable energy sources like solar and wind. This affordability has made them an attractive choice for businesses and individuals looking to keep their energy costs low.


However, the cost of renewable energy has been declining rapidly in recent years, making it more competitive with fossil fuels. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the cost of solar energy has decreased by around 80- 90% since 2010, while the cost of onshore wind energy has decreased by around 70-80%. In some parts of the world, solar and wind energy are now cheaper than fossil fuels, even without subsidies.



Fossil fuels are abundant resources, with vast reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas located all around the world. This abundance makes them a dependable source of energy for many countries, particularly those with large reserves of these fuels within their borders.


Fossil fuels are found in many countries around the world, with varying amounts and types of reserves. Coal, for example, is found in over 80 countries, with the largest reserves in the United States, Russia, China, and India. Oil is found in over 100 countries, with the largest reserves in Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Canada, Iran, and Iraq. Natural gas is also found in over 100 countries, with the largest reserves in Russia, Iran, Qatar, and the United States.



One of the key advantages of fossil fuels is their versatility. Fossil fuels can be used in a wide range of applications, from powering cars and heating homes to generating electricity and producing industrial products like plastics and fertilizers.


Oil, for example, is used not only as a fuel for transportation but also as a feedstock for the production of petrochemicals, which are used in the manufacture of a wide range of products including plastics, synthetic fibers, and pharmaceuticals. Natural gas is used not only as a fuel for heating and cooking but also as a feedstock for the production of chemicals like ammonia, which is used in the manufacture of fertilizers.


Coal, meanwhile, is used primarily for electricity generation but can also be used as a feedstock for the production of steel and other industrial processes. In fact, coal is still the primary fuel used in the production of steel worldwide, due to its high carbon content and low cost.


High Energy Density

Fossil fuels have a high energy density, meaning they contain a large amount of energy per unit of mass or volume. This is due to their chemical composition, which is characterized by a high proportion of carbon and hydrogen atoms bound together in energy-rich molecules like hydrocarbons.


When fossil fuels are burned, the carbon and hydrogen molecules react with oxygen in the air to release energy in the form of heat and light. The amount of energy released depends on the chemical composition of the fuel, as well as the efficiency of the combustion process.


Compared to other energy sources like renewable energy, fossil fuels have a much higher energy density. For example, a single gallon of gasoline contains approximately 125,000 British thermal units (BTUs) of energy, while a battery with the same weight as a gallon of gasoline would only contain around 1,700 BTUs of energy. This means that fossil fuels are much more efficient at storing and releasing energy than most other energy sources.


The high energy density of fossil fuels makes them ideal for transportation, where weight and volume are important considerations. A gallon of gasoline can power a car for several miles, while a battery with the same weight and volume would only be able to power an electric car for a fraction of that distance.


Ease of Installing Power Plants

One of the advantages of fossil fuels is the ease of installing power plants. Unlike renewable energy sources that require specific conditions and infrastructure, fossil fuel power plants can be installed almost anywhere.


This is because fossil fuels, particularly oil and natural gas, are easily transported through pipelines or tankers. This means that power plants can be located far away from the source of the fuel, and in areas that are more convenient for electricity distribution. In addition, the technology for building fossil fuel power plants is well-established, making it relatively simple to construct a new plant or upgrade an existing one.


The ease of installation of fossil fuel power plants has contributed to their widespread use around the world. According to the International Energy Agency, over 60% of the world’s electricity generation still comes from fossil fuels, and this is expected to remain the case for the foreseeable future.


Deep Knowledge of the Technology Related to Fossil Fuel

Fossil fuels have been used for centuries, and as a result, there is a deep knowledge and understanding of the technology involved in their extraction, refinement, and use. This expertise has been developed over generations and refined through research and development, making the process of using fossil fuels more efficient, safer, and more profitable.


For example, the technology involved in drilling for oil or gas has advanced significantly over the years, making it possible to access previously untapped reserves. Advances in geology and seismic imaging technology have also allowed for more accurate identification of potential reserves and the development of new exploration techniques.


Similarly, the refining process has also seen significant improvements over time, resulting in cleaner and more efficient use of fossil fuels. The development of advanced technologies like carbon capture and storage (CCS) has also made it possible to capture and store carbon emissions from fossil fuel use, helping to mitigate the environmental impacts of these fuels.


The knowledge and expertise gained through years of experience with fossil fuels have also contributed to the development of related industries, such as petrochemicals, which produce a wide range of useful products like plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals.


Oil refinery and extraction of fossil fuels


Easy to Store and Transport

One of the advantages of fossil fuels is their easy storage and transportation. Fossil fuels are mainly transported in the form of liquids and gases, which are easy to transport using pipelines, ships, and trucks.


Crude oil, for example, can be transported through pipelines or by tanker ships. Once it reaches its destination, it can be stored in large tanks until it is ready to be processed into various products, such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel. Natural gas is transported through pipelines or by compressing it into liquefied natural gas (LNG), which can be shipped to other countries.


Transport of fossil fuels


Useful By-Products

Fossil fuels are not only a source of energy but also a source of various useful byproducts. One of the most well-known byproducts is plastics. Plastics are made from petrochemicals which are derived from crude oil, a fossil fuel. Plastics are used in a wide range of products from packaging materials to construction materials. In fact, it is difficult to imagine a world without plastic products.


Another useful byproduct of fossil fuels is lubricating oils. These oils are used to reduce friction and wear between moving parts in machinery. Lubricating oils are also used in the manufacture of plastics, synthetic fibers, and other products.


Fossil fuels also produce asphalt, which is used in the construction of roads and other infrastructure. Asphalt is a durable and cost-effective material that can withstand heavy traffic and harsh weather conditions.


Moreover, fossil fuels also produce fertilizers which are used to improve crop yields. Fossil fuels provide the raw materials for the production of ammonia, which is the main component of fertilizers. The fertilizers help to increase crop yields which is important for feeding the growing world population.


In addition, fossil fuels also produce a variety of chemicals that are used in many different products. For example, fossil fuels provide the raw materials for the production of synthetic rubber, which is used in tires, belts, hoses, and many other products. They are also used in the production of detergents, solvents, and many other products.


Overall, the useful byproducts of fossil fuels play an important role in our daily lives. They are used in a wide range of products and industries, and help to improve our standard of living.


Fossil Fuels Job Creation

Fossil fuels are an essential driver of job creation in various industries. These jobs range from exploration, extraction, refining, transportation, and distribution to marketing and sales. The jobs created by the fossil fuel industry are spread across various countries, and they have a significant impact on the economy. 


The fossil fuel industry is one of the largest employers globally. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the oil and gas industry employs 32 million people globally. The industry is also a significant contributor to national economies, with revenues in the trillions of dollars. For instance, in the United States, the oil and gas industry contributes $75 million per day in federal and state taxes and royalties.


The jobs created by the fossil fuel industry are diverse and range from highly skilled to low-skilled workers. Engineers, geologists, drillers, rig workers, refinery workers, truck drivers, and salespeople are among the many professions associated with the industry. These jobs are not only high paying but also provide stability for workers and their families.


Moreover, the fossil fuel industry provides jobs not just for those working directly in the industry but also for those in related sectors such as transportation, construction, and manufacturing. These jobs have a significant impact on local economies, particularly in rural areas, where job opportunities may be limited.


Despite the growth in renewable energy jobs in recent years, the fossil fuel industry still dominates the energy sector. The oil and natural gas sector provides employment to nearly 2.6 million individuals in the United States and sustains 9.8 million jobs in the country, accounting for 5.6% of the overall U.S. workforce.


While the jobs created by the fossil fuel industry are significant, the industry also faces challenges, including the transition to cleaner energy sources. The shift towards renewable energy sources will inevitably lead to a decrease in fossil fuel jobs, and this could impact the economies of countries that heavily rely on the fossil fuel industry.


Fossil fuel cons


Fossil fuels are non-renewable

Fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, are finite resources that are not renewable on a human timescale. This means that they cannot be replaced as quickly as they are being consumed, and once they are depleted, they will be gone forever.


The formation of fossil fuels takes millions of years, which means that the rate at which they are being extracted and used by humans is significantly faster than the rate at which they are being created naturally. As a result, it is inevitable that we will run out of fossil fuels at some point in the future.


According to a 2020 report by Our World in Data, coal reserves are estimated to last for around 139 years, oil reserves for approximately 54 years, and gas reserves for about 49 years.


Dangerous to produce

While fossil fuels offer many benefits, there are also significant risks associated with their production. Extracting fossil fuels can be dangerous and sometimes even deadly for workers involved in the process. For example, coal mining is a dangerous occupation with a high risk of accidents, lung diseases, and other health problems.


In addition, oil and gas production can lead to fires, explosions, and other hazards that put workers at risk.


Refinery and oil rig explosions

Refinery and oil rig explosions are serious risks associated with the production of fossil fuels. The refining process of crude oil involves various steps that include high temperatures, high pressure, and flammable substances. This makes it an inherently hazardous process. The machinery used in refineries and oil rigs is also complex and prone to malfunctions, which can lead to accidents.


Refinery explosions can occur due to a variety of reasons, such as equipment failure, human error, or natural disasters. These explosions can cause significant damage to the environment and can result in loss of life and property.


In 2019, a refinery explosion in Philadelphia caused a massive fire that took several days to put out. The accidents were caused by a faulty pipe and it released more than 5,000 pounds of deadly hydrofluoric acid into the air. Such incidents not only pose a risk to workers but also to the surrounding communities.


Water poisoning from fracking 

Fracking is a technique used to extract natural gas and oil from shale rock formations deep beneath the earth’s surface. While it has been hailed as a game-changer for the energy industry, fracking has come under intense scrutiny in recent years due to its potential negative impact on the environment and human health.


One of the most significant risks associated with fracking is water contamination. Fracking involves injecting a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals at high pressure into the ground to release natural gas or oil trapped in the rock. This mixture, known as fracking fluid, can contain a range of toxic chemicals that can contaminate the surrounding water sources.


The fracking process has been linked to several instances of groundwater contamination, where toxic chemicals from fracking fluid have leached into underground aquifers. These aquifers are a crucial source of drinking water for communities living near fracking sites. Exposure to these chemicals can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and even cancer.


Another way in which fracking can contaminate water is through the disposal of fracking wastewater. Once the natural gas or oil has been extracted, the fracking fluid that returns to the surface, known as wastewater or produced water, must be disposed of. This wastewater can contain high levels of salt, heavy metals, and radioactive material, making it extremely toxic.


If the wastewater is not disposed of properly, it can contaminate nearby rivers, streams, and groundwater sources. The potential for water contamination from fracking has led to widespread concern and opposition to the practice, particularly in areas with limited access to clean water sources.



Oil spills

Oil spills are a common occurrence in the oil industry, and they can have devastating effects on the environment. When oil spills occur, they can contaminate large bodies of water, killing marine life and damaging entire ecosystems. Oil spills also have negative effects on the economy and can result in the loss of jobs and income for people who rely on fishing and other industries that are dependent on clean water.


One of the most devastating oil spills in recent history was the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 caused by the oil rig explosions. The explosion killed 11 people and caused an estimated 4 million barrels of oil to spill into the ocean, resulting in significant environmental damage.


The damage caused by oil spills can last for decades or even centuries, as the spilled oil can seep deep into the ground and water, making cleanup efforts difficult and expensive.


Air pollution and human health

Air pollution and smog caused by fossil fuels have been major concerns for public health and the environment. When fossil fuels are burned, they release a variety of air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, into the atmosphere.


These pollutants can have serious health impacts, especially for vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and those with respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. Short-term exposure to high levels of these pollutants can cause respiratory issues, such as asthma attacks, and long-term exposure can lead to chronic health problems, including heart disease and lung cancer.


Air pollution due to fossil fuel


Mercury emissions

Mercury is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the air from the burning of fossil fuels, especially coal. When released into the atmosphere, mercury can travel great distances and contaminate the environment, leading to serious health problems for humans and wildlife.


The release of mercury into the environment can have a range of adverse health effects, including neurological damage, birth defects, and developmental disorders. It can also have significant impacts on wildlife, including fish, birds, and mammals, leading to reproductive problems, behavioral changes, and even death.


Acid rain

Acid rain is another environmental problem caused by the burning of fossil fuels. When sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are released into the air from the burning of coal, oil, and gas, they react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid. These acids then fall to the ground as acid rain or other forms of precipitation, such as snow or fog.


Acid rain can have devastating effects on forests, lakes, and rivers. When acid rain falls on trees, it can damage their leaves, needles, and bark, making them more susceptible to disease and insects. Acid rain can also acidify soil, making it difficult for trees and other plants to absorb essential nutrients. In lakes and rivers, acid rain can reduce the pH of the water, making it more acidic and harmful to aquatic life, such as fish and frogs.


Greenhouse emissions and global warming 

The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, releases large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, trap heat from the sun and prevent it from escaping into space. As a result, the Earth’s temperature rises, causing global warming and a range of other environmental problems.


The link between fossil fuel emissions and global warming is well established by scientific research. In fact, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, are the main cause of global warming observed over the past century.


Global warming has already had significant impacts on the planet, including rising sea levels, more frequent and severe heat waves, droughts, wildfires, and storms. These events have led to economic losses, displacement of people, and loss of life. The effects of global warming will only continue to worsen if we do not take action to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and transition to cleaner forms of energy.


The impact of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels is not limited to global warming alone. These emissions also lead to ocean acidification, which can have a devastating effect on marine life, and air pollution, which can harm human health and the environment.


Impact on wildlife

The extraction and use of fossil fuels have a significant impact on wildlife and their habitats. The process of mining and drilling for fossil fuels often involves clearing large areas of land, destroying natural habitats and disrupting ecosystems. This can lead to the displacement and endangerment of numerous species of animals and plants, some of which may be unable to survive in new or altered habitats.


The transportation of fossil fuels can also have a negative impact on wildlife. Pipelines and tanker ships used to transport oil can cause oil spills, which can have devastating effects on marine life and birds. Oil spills can kill or harm animals and plants, and can contaminate water sources, making it difficult for wildlife to survive.


Fossil fuel extraction


Geopolitical conflicts

When it comes to the impact of fossil fuels on geopolitics, the subject can get quite complex and interesting. As we know, many countries around the world depend heavily on oil and gas reserves to fuel their economies. The control of these resources can be a powerful tool for countries to wield influence over others, leading to conflicts and tensions.


One prime example of this is the ongoing conflict in the Middle East, which is home to some of the world’s largest oil reserves. Countries in the region, such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq, have immense power and influence due to their control over these resources. This has led to geopolitical tensions, such as the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War.


In addition to the Middle East, other countries with significant oil and gas reserves, such as Russia, Venezuela, and Nigeria, have also used their resources to exert power and influence on the global stage. These countries have been known to use their oil and gas supplies as leverage in international negotiations, making it a key aspect of their foreign policy.


Moreover, the discovery of new oil and gas reserves in previously untapped regions has led to the development of new geopolitical tensions. For example, the Arctic region, which is estimated to hold vast oil and gas reserves, has become an area of increased interest for countries like Russia, Canada, and Norway, leading to territorial disputes and geopolitical tensions.


The rising price of fossil fuels

The rising price of fossil fuels is a significant concern for many people around the world. As the demand for these finite resources continues to increase, the supply dwindles, causing prices to rise. This is particularly evident with oil prices, which can fluctuate dramatically depending on a variety of factors such as supply disruptions, geopolitical tensions, and changes in demand.


The rising cost of fossil fuels has a major impact on our daily lives, as we rely heavily on these resources for transportation, heating, and electricity generation. As prices continue to rise, people are forced to pay more for these basic necessities, which can put a strain on household budgets and make it difficult for businesses to remain competitive.


One of the main reasons for the rising price of fossil fuels is the fact that they are finite resources, meaning that there is only a limited supply available. As the global population continues to grow and demand for energy increases, the available supply of fossil fuels is being consumed at an alarming rate. This, in turn, drives up prices as companies and countries compete for access to these resources.


Another factor contributing to the rising price of fossil fuels is geopolitical tensions. Many of the world’s largest oil-producing countries are located in politically unstable regions, which can lead to supply disruptions and price spikes. For example, tensions in the Middle East have led to oil price shocks in the past, which can have a ripple effect on global economies. A recent example of Ukriane-Russia war, which led to higher prices of oil and natural gas worldwide. 


What is the most polluting fossil fuel?

When it comes to polluting our planet, fossil fuels are the top offenders. But which of these fuels is the most harmful? It’s a tough call, but many experts agree that coal is the most polluting of all the fossil fuels.


Why is coal so dirty? Well, for starters, it’s one of the most carbon-intensive fuels out there. When coal is burned, it releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and climate change. In addition to carbon dioxide, coal also releases sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and other harmful pollutants into the air.


These pollutants can have serious health effects, causing respiratory problems, heart disease, and even premature death. And that’s not all – coal mining and transportation can also have devastating impacts on the environment and local communities.


What is the cleanest fossil fuel?

Natural gas is often considered the “cleanest” fossil fuel because it produces fewer pollutants than coal and oil when burned. Natural gas combustion produces lower amounts of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. Additionally, natural gas produces less carbon dioxide emissions per unit of energy compared to coal or oil.


What are the alternatives to fossil fuels?

As we’ve discussed, fossil fuels have a number of negative impacts on the environment and human health. Fortunately, there are a variety of alternatives available that can help us move away from our dependence on these polluting energy sources. One of the most well-known alternatives to fossil fuels is renewable energy. This includes sources like solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal power. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite and polluting, renewable energy sources are abundant and emit little to no greenhouse gases or pollutants.


Summing up!

In conclusion, the use of fossil fuels has both pros and cons. On the one hand, they have played a crucial role in powering our economies and providing reliable energy sources. Fossil fuels have created numerous job opportunities and have contributed to the growth of several industries. Moreover, they are relatively cheap and easy to access.


On the other hand, the use of fossil fuels has significant drawbacks. They are responsible for air pollution, which has negative health impacts on both humans and wildlife. Fossil fuel extraction and transportation have also caused environmental disasters such as oil spills and habitat destruction. Moreover, the finite nature of fossil fuels means that they will eventually run out, causing prices to rise and threatening global energy security.


Therefore, the need for renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal has become more pressing. These alternatives offer cleaner and more sustainable energy sources with fewer negative environmental impacts. Investing in renewable energy will not only help to mitigate climate change but also lead to job creation and economic growth in the long run.



  1. National Geographic
  2. International energy agency
  3. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

What are some of the major advantages of using fossil fuels as an energy source?
Fossil fuels are relatively cheap and abundant, and have a high energy density, making them a convenient and practical source of energy for transportation and electricity generation.
What are the major disadvantages of using fossil fuels as an energy source?
Fossil fuels are non-renewable, meaning that they will eventually run out, and their extraction and use contribute significantly to environmental pollution and climate change.
What are some of the alternatives to fossil fuels?
Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal power offer cleaner and more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels.
How can we balance the advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels?
By implementing policies that encourage the use of cleaner energy sources, investing in research and development of new technologies, and improving the efficiency of our energy use, we can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels while still meeting our energy needs.


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